|Sl. No.||Project Number and title||Period||Name and Designation the project Leader||Progress of work|
Studies on fertilizer (N & K) requirement and method of application to ECT coconut nursery
|December 2018 – November 2020||Dr.R.Marimuthu
|First year (2018-19) field experiment was started on 28.12.2018. As per the treatment schedule, soil application and foliar application of N & K nutrients are being applied. The trial is under progress.|
Studies on performance of popular varieties of banana as intercrop in coconut eco-system
|June 2019 – May 2022||Dr.R.Marimuthu
|Banana suckers of eight varieties were planted in replicated design during last week of August 2019.|
Identification of new coconut hybrids, dwarf genotypes and local tall ecotypes for resistance against major coconut pests and diseases for the Eastern zone of Tamil Nadu
|April 2019- March 2022||Dr.V.G.Mathirajan
Asst. Prof. (Agrl. Ento.)
| Among 6 cross combinations of T x T and D x D, BGR x ADOT and COD x MYD are found to be promising recording 10.4 and 15.0 per cent leaf damage by rhinoceros beetle respectively.
Among 5 cross combinations of D x D, CGD x MGD and MYD x CGD were found promising recording nil damage by red palm weevil.
ICAR partly/fully financed schemes (from 1.4.2016 to till date)
|AICRP number||Discipline||Name of the experiment||Name and designation of the scientist incharge||Progress of work|
|AICRP/HOR/VPM/CON/002||Crop Improvement||Gen.1. Expt.2: Collection, conservation and evaluation of location specific germplasm||Dr.K.S.Vijay Selvaraj
|Six local ecotypes and 2 check varieties (Kera Keralam and ALRCN1) were collected and being evaluated for high yielding and special attributes. The palms are in bearing phase now with real expressivity.|
|Gen.1.Expt. 3: Evaluation of elite germplasm||Six exotic genotypes were collected from CPCRI, Kasaragod and being evaluated for vegetative characters. Among the six ecotypes under evaluation Makham Tall showed the dwarf stature (378 cm), Verikkobari tall (430 cm). Regarding the girth Palawan tall recorded slender nature (122 cm) followed by Guam III Tall (142 cm).|
Evaluation of new coconut hybrids of location specific cross Combinations
|Six cross combinations of location specific were developed by CRS, Veppankulam and being evaluated for high yielding and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. West Coast Tall x Kenthali dwarf, West Coast Tall x Malayan Orange Dwarf, Malayan Orange Dwarf x West Coast Tall, Andaman ordinary tall x Chowghat Orange Dwarf , West Coast Tall x Malayan Green Dwarf and Kenthali dwarf x West Coast Tall were planted in the main field during 2008 in four replications. Observations were recorded regarding annual nut yield and nut characters in each replication. Analysis of data recorded revealed that the cross MOD x WCT beared higher number of nuts (88 nuts/ palm/ year) which was followed by WCT x Kenthali Dwarf (79 nuts/palm/year). Among the five cross combinations, Andaman ordinary tall x Chowghat Orange Dwarf registered maximum whole nut weight and copra content (990 g/nut and 150 g/nut).|
|Gen.2.Expt. 4: Evaluation of Tall x Tall coconut hybrids||Five Tall x Tall cross combinations are being evaluated for high yield and oil content. Laccadive ordinary tall x Andaman Ordinary Tall , Andaman Ordinary Tall x East Coast Tall, Benaulim Green x Andaman Ordinary Tall , East Coast Tall x Laccadive ordinary tall and West Coast Tall x Tiptur Tall effected at Veppankulam were planted on 2011. Morpological characters of 5 new TxT cross combinations in coconut for major agroclimatic regions were recorded and analysed statistically. Among the five new crosses and local check (VHC3), the performance of LCT x ADOT expressed the dwarf stature (480 cm) and BGR x ADOT recorded higher number of fruit bunches (9 bunches per palm) and annual nut yield (69 nuts/palm/year).|
|Gen.2.Expt. 5: Evaluation of location specific Tall x Tall coconut hybrids||Seven Tall x Tall cross combinations are being evaluated for this east coast location. West Coast Tall x Philippines Ordinary tall , East Coast Tall x Zanzibar , East Coast Tall x Java Giant , East Coast Tall x Philippines Ordinary tall , San Ramon x Zanzibar , West Coast Tall x Cochin China and Philippines Ordinary tall x West Coast Tall effected at Veppankulam were planted at 14B block on January, 2009 .Morphological characters of 7 new TxT cross combinations in coconut for major agroclimatic regions were recorded and analysed. Among the seven new crosses and local check (VHC3), the performance of ECT x PHOT was superior in terms of palm height (365 cm) i.e dwarf stature with higher number of annual nut yield (86 nuts / palm) which is in pre stabilized yielding stage.|
|Gen.2.Expt. 6: Evaluation of Dwarf x Dwarf coconut hybrids in different agro climatic Conditions|| Five Dwarf x Dwarf cross combinations are being evaluated for dwarf stature and high quality tender coconut. Chowghat Orange Dwarf x Malayan Yellow Dwarf , Cowghat Orange Dwarf x Malayan Green Dwarf , Chowghat Orange Dwarf x Malayan Green Dwarf , Malayan Yellow Dwarf x Chowghat Green Dwarf , Gangabondam Green Dwarf x Malayan Orange Dwarf and Chowghat Orange Dwarf x MGD were planted during 2011. Among the 5 crosses, developed from CPCRI, Kasaragod the cross MYD x CGD comes to flowering on 22nd month after planting and number of female flowers/ buttons were found to be higher in the cross COD x MYD. Now the palms are in bearing stage.
Among the D x D hybrids evaluated for morphological characters, GBGD x MOD expressed the dwarf stature with less girth (440 cm and 142 cm respectively) and regarding the tender nut quality parameters, COD x MGD recorded maximum volume of tender nut water (490 ml/nut). Regarding the Total soluble solids (TSS), maximum score was observed in the cross MYD x CGD (6.7degree brix) .GBGD x MOD cross recorded higher number of annual nut yield (84 nuts/palm/year).
|AICRP/HOR/VPM/CON/002||Crop Management||Coc. / Agron 10 : Evaluation of nutrient management under coconut based cropping system for different agro-climatic regions||Dr. A. Selva Rani
Asst. Prof. (Agronomy)
|Four levels of organic and inorganic nutrient combinations are being evaluated under coconut based cropping system. 50% of recommended NPK + 50 % of organic recycling with vermicompost + vermiwash application + biofertilizer application and in situ green manuring recorded higher net income of Rs.5,54,125/ha when compared to recommended NPK application in coconut as pure crop (Rs. 224700/ ha)|
|Coc. Agron.10 A: Development of coconut based farming systems
Experiment 3: Integration of goat in coconut based cropping system
|Integration of goat in coconut based cropping system, with two treatments viz., T1 – coconut + fodder trees + pasture grass + goat and T2 – coconut mono crop. The goat manure used to partly supplement of the nutrient requirement of coconut palms and grasses. Nutrient addition and income generation through goat are being evaluated.|
|Coc. Agron.11 – Coconut based cropping systems for different agro-climatic regions
Experiment 2: Performance of cocoa varieties/ hybrids as intercrop in coconut gardens
|There are six cocoa verities / hybrids viz., T1 : VTLCC 1, T2 : VTLCH 1, T3 : VTLCH 2, T4 : VTLCH 3, T5 : VTLCH4 , T6 : VTLC 1 (control) were planted and the performance as intercrop in coconut gardens is being evaluated. Among the cocoa clones and hybrids evaluated, the VTLCH 1 has performed well in terms of stem girth (37.32 cm ), yield attributes viz., pod weight (145.60 g/pod), number of beans (29.00 per pod) and dry beans yield (2.30 kg/tree) followed by VTLCH 2 and VTLCC 1.|
|Path 1: Survey and surveillance of coconut diseases
Expt. 1 Roving survey of coconut diseases
Expt. 2 Fixed plot survey of coconut diseases
Survey conducted in Thanjavur, Trichy Thiruvarur and Pudukkottai districts to assess the incidence of Basal Stem Rot, Stem Bleeding and Bud Rot in coconut. In the survey during 2014-15, out of 5257 palms inspected 121 palms were infected in BSR and 19 palms were infected by bud rot showing 2.3 % and 0.72 percent disease incidence respectively.
In the survey of 2015-16, out of 4950 palms, 126 palms were infected of BSR and 22 palms were infected by bud rot showing 25 and 0.4 percent disease incidence respectively.
In the survey of 2017-18, out of 18855 palms, 186 palms were infected of BSR and 22 palms were infected by bud rot showing 0.98 and 0.07 percent disease incidence respectively.
In the survey of 2018-19 (till March 2019), out of 20,014 palms, 181 palms were infected of BSR and 35 palms were infected by bud rot showing 0.90 and 0.17 percent disease incidence respectively.
In April 2019, 1403 palms were surveyed in Veppankulam, Siramelkudi, Kandiyankadu, Solangudikadu and Vendakottai. Out of 1403 palms, 15 palms were infected by Basal Stem Rot, 03 palms were infected by Bud rot and 01number of p lethal wilt palm was indentified. No incidence of Stem bleeding. Incidence White flies, Red palm Weevil, Rhinocerous beetle and boron deficiency was also observed.
In June 2019, two coconut gardens were inspected at Kalyanaodai village. Out of 550 palms, 5 numbers of palms were infected by Basal Stem Rot disease and 2 numbers of palms were infected by bud rot disease. There is no incidence of stem bleeding and quick wilt. Also, 4 number of Rhinoceros beetle attack, 12 numbers of Red palm weevil infestations were observed.
Fixed plot survey
Fixed plot survey was initiated at Mangadu village in Alankudi taluk of Pudukottai district during December, 2012. The total number of palms in the field is 85. The initial per cent incidence of basal stem rot (28.00 %) was recorded.
It was further reached to 85% in May, 2019, out of 80 palms. 27 number of Rhinoceros beetle attack, 03 numbers of Red palm weevil infestations was observed. 01 number of lethal wilt was also observed. Boron deficiency symptom was also observed in young palms.
Basal stem rot incidence and soil temperature data were recorded at Mangadu. The mean soil temperature recorded was 38 degree C. Soil samples were collected and the enumeration of soil microbiota was recorded.
The mean fungal population recorded was 4.25 x 10-3 cfu per gram of soil. The mean bacterial population recorded was 9.75 x 10-5 cfu per gram of soil.
|Path 2: Basal stem rot management
Expt. 1 Characterization of Ganoderma spp. Associated with basal stem rot disease of coconut
Expt. 2. Epidemiology and disease forecasting
Expt.3. Management of coconut basal stem rot through biocontrol agents
Expt.-4 Management of coconut basal stem rot through fungicides
|Characterizationof Ganoderma spp. Associated with basal stem rot disease of coconut
Four isolates of Ganoderma spp. representing varied geographical locations were collected during 2017-2018 and their variations with respect to morphological and cultural characters were documented. The radial growth of isolates was around 90.00 mm in 9 days in almost all isolates and statistically there was no difference among the isolates with respect to growth. The colony characters of all isolates were white in colour.
Epidemiology and disease forecasting
The study was initiated during April, 2018 to understand the impact of intercrops and weather parameters viz., temperature, rainfall and rainy days in coconut on occurrence and to correlate the vertical and horizontal spread of basal stem rot disease. Two blocks were selected at coconut Research Station, Veppankulam for taking observations of sole coconut and coconut intercropped with Pepper + Banana + Cocoa
The vertical spread of the disease in sole coconut and Coconut + Pepper + Banana + Cocoa ranged from 39.9 to 47 cm and 59.06 to 66.87 cm respectively. The Per cent Disease Index was increased 22.26 during October, 2018 in sole coconut and 20.55% was recorded in Coconut + Pepper + Banana + Cocoa. The rate of increase of horizontal spread of the disease was high (25.86%) in sole crop as compared to coconut intercropping system.
The vertical spread of BSR is in intercrop ( 14%), in sole crop (34%) and the horizontal spread of BSR in intercrop (24%) and in sole crop (27%). The mean value of minimum temperature (26 degreeC), maximum temperature (41.4 degree C), Relative Humidity (RH) 85%, rainfall (15.2mm), (11mm) and soil temperature 35 degree C were recorded during July, 2019.
Management of basal stem rot disease in coconut through biocontrol agents
Antagonistic potential of eight isolates of biocontrol agents (endophytes) against Ganoderma spp. by dual culture technique revealed that the isolate EPC5 was highly effective inhibiting the growth of the pathogen by 75.68 per cent over control.
Based on the in vitro evaluation of biocontrol agents, effective bacterial strain EPC5 was selected for the management of basal stem rot under field condition. The trial was laid out in randomized block design with following four treatments and five replications. For each replication, four coconut palms were selected. The trial was initiated during October, 2018 at Coconut Research Station, Veppankulam. The effective bacterial strain EPC5 was given as soil application and root feeding at quarterly intervals and compared with fungicide (Hexaconazole). Among the treatments, root feeding of 50 ml of EPC5 ( nutrient broth)/100 ml of water at 3 months interval was the most effective in containing the disease registering only 0.55 per cent increase in disease incidence as against 2.44 per cent in control in the field.
Management of basal stem rot disease in coconut through fungicides
The inhibitory effect of eight fungicides at 100, 250 and 500 ppm concentrations on the growth of Ganoderma lucidum, causing basal stem rot disease on coconut under in vitro condition was evaluated by poisoned food technique. Among the 8 fungicides tested, Mancozeb 50% + Carbendazim 25% WS, Zineb 68% + Hexaconazole 4% WP and Pyraclostrobin + Fluxapyroxad 250 SC were found superior recording 100 per cent inhibition of Ganoderma lucidum at all the concentrations tested and showed superior over the other fungicides tested under in vitro.
Based on the in vitro evaluation of eight fungicides, combination fungicide viz., Zineb 68% + Hexaconazole 4%WP was selected for the management of basal stem rot under field condition. The trial was laid out in randomized block design with following six treatments and three replications. For each replication, four coconut palms were selected. The trial was initiated during September, 2019 at Coconut Research Station, Veppankulam. The effective fungicide was given as root feeding at quarterly intervals. The results revealed that the root feeding of Hexaconazole @ 3 ml + 100 ml water at quarterly interval was the most effective in containing the disease by registering only 0.48 per cent increase in disease incidence as against 3.51 per cent in control followed by the root feeding of Zineb 68% + Hexaconazole 4%WP @ 4g + 100 ml water at quarterly interval by registering 0.84 per cent increase in disease incidence.