Soil and Water Conservation

Soil and Water Conservation

Findings in water management research

  • Micro sprinkler irrigation once in two days at 40 per cent pan evaporation (PE) under paired row planting with a spacing of 0.75 m between rows and 1.25 m between pairs of rows was found to be optimum in sandy loam soils with following time of operations.
Season   Time of operation
January-February : 1 hour
March-June : 1 hour 30 minutes
July-September : 1 hour
October-November : 45 minutes

Single economic drip irrigation layout of 1.50 m lateral spacing with 4 lph drippers at 60 cm spacing along the lateral is most suitable for sugarcane, banana, turmeric, tapioca, tomato and other annual crops without altering the layout for several years.

  • Drip fertigation at 100 per cent of recommended Nitrogen and Potassium is very much suitable to sugarcane, banana, turmeric, tapioca and tomato.
  • In banana based inter cropping system with marigold as intercrop, irrigation at 0.8 IW/CPE (approximately 6-8 days interval) registered higher fruit yield, total equivalent yield, WUE and B-C ratio.

  • Pit method (3 plants/pit) of banana planting with drip irrigation and fertigation of N and K application of 84 lits of water through drip once in two days is found to give higher yield, WUE and economic returns.

Water requirement of different crops


  • Irrigation to a depth of 5 cm water once in 4 days (or) 1-2 days after disappearance of ponded water saves 30 per cent water over continuous submergence.


  • Irrigation reqirement is 500 mm and the critical stages are vegetative, flowering and doughening / maturity stages.


  • Irrigation requirement is 400 mm and the critical stages are tillering, flowering and maturity stages.


  • Irrigation requirement is 550 mm and the critical stages are knee height, tasseling, silking and maturity.


  • Irrigation requirement is 350 mm (based on 0.6 IW/CPE ratio, 10-12 days interval) and critical stage is flowering phase.


  • Irrigation requirement is 550 mm, (in view of 0.6 IW/CPE ratio i.e. irrigation at once in 10-12 days interval). Border strip method of irrigation saved 22.3 per cent irrigation water.


  • Irrigation at 10-12 days interval (0.6 IW/CPE ratio) with alternate furrow irrigation required only 450 mm of water.


  • Irrigation requirement is 650 mm. Flowering, boll formation and boll development stages are the critical stages.


  • Irrigation requirement is 1800 mm (surface method); Drip once in 2 days at 0.30 IW/CPE consumed only 1028 mm water.


  • Surface irrigation required 1390 mm of water but drip irrigation daily at 45 minutes to 1 ½ hrs depending on weather (0.36 IW/CPE ratio) consumed only 650 mm of water.


  • Surface irrigation consumed 2500 mm of water. Whereas drip irrigation once in 2 days at 24 litre/plant consumed 1081 mm of water.


  • Irrigation requirement is 1400 mm. Irrigation through drip once in 2 days saves 50 per cent of water.